Think Again

Adam Grant
Mar 6, 2023
High 🔥🔥🔥


Rethinking decisions
physcohlohy safety >
Identity forclosure
Do you Agree if not, what evidence would change your mind ?
Habit of rethinking
  1. Think like scientist - Resist preach prosecute or politic. everything is hypothesis and see it as enexperiement
  1. Define idenity as value not opinions ( Curosity, learning, mental flexibilit) - list of factor can change my mind
  1. Seek information that goes against bias - challenge your assumption
30 action items
  1. Think like a scientist
    1. Often, you tend to preach, prosecute or politic. Be curious instead & test your hypotheses with data
  1. Define yourself in values, not opinions
    1. You are so much better than your opinions. Keep a list of factors that can change your mind
  1. Seek out information that confront your views
    1. This socratic method allows you to gain deep knowledge and a unique perspective
  1. Beware the Dunning-Kreuger effect
    1. The more confidence you have, the more likely you are overestimating yourself (and the reverse)
  1. Harness the benefits of doubt
    1. It is an opportunity to growth. This confusion is an extremely good thing
  1. Embrace the joy of being wrong
    1. By doing this, you will become right much faster. Improve instead of resist
  1. Learn something new from each person you meet
    1. The most valuable experience is the special encounter you normally do not have
  1. Build a challenge network, not only a support network
    1. They will give you useful feedback & help you stay on track towards greatness
  1. Don’t shy away from constructive conflicts
    1. Make it a discussion, negotiation or debate. No negative emotions needed
  1. Practice persuasive listening
If you want to change someone, ask questions & pay attention. They
  • love being heard
  • will have more courage changing
11/ Question how, rather than why
Otherwise, you will receive pushback. By asking how instead, they will be more cooperative since it is more obvious where the limits are
12/ Ask the following:
“What evidence would change your mind?”
No ambiguity, just clear communication
13/ Ask how people originally formed their opinions
Ask them (& yourself) what they would believe if they were born at a different time & place
14/ Acknowledge common ground
A debate is a dance, not a war
15/ Less is often more
Do not bombard with reasons since it is counterproductive & overwhelming.
Bring a few of your strongest instead
16/ Reinforce the feeling of choice
People don’t like to be manipulated. Give them the freedom & they will respect you
17/ Have a conversation about the conversation
Make it ok to express frustration & how your discussion should be conducted
18/ Complexify contentious topic
Almost nothing is either black or white. Make it more grey to facilitate a nuanced discussion
19/ Do not shy away from caveats and contingencies
Acknowledging the other side makes you stronger & more credible. The audience like it
20/ Expand your emotional range
Instead of only frustration, show some curiosity, confusion & ambivalence
21/ Have a weekly mythbusting discussion
Debunking myths will make it easier to rethink overall & improves relationships
22/ Create multiple drafts and seek feedback
This have multiple benefits:
  • Getting started more easily
  • Relieves the pressure
  • Get support from others
23/ Don’t predict the future
You tend to attach your identity to it otherwise. Broaden the possibilities to find the best (and often unexpected ones)
24/ Abandon “best practices”
Seek better practices instead. Improve them
25/ Establish psychological safety
This is the major factor for getting a learning culture. Leaders can do it by expressing humility
26/ Keep a rethinking scorecard
As the picture below shows, you have to factor in the process too. Smart experiments are encouraged
notion image
27/ Throw out the 10 year plan
You don’t know how your interests will change. Be open instead to the best choice possible
Plan only your next step
28/ Rethink your actions, not just your surroundings
Seek good intentions & deeds within yourself instead of only the beach
29/ Schedule a life checkup
Observe and analyse your current situation & how it can improve
30/ Make time to think again
Book Summary
notion image